Thrips insecticide resistance pdf

I was employed at the present department of crop protection, dias to work on methods to detect insecticide resistance in thrips and aphids. Resistance to neonicotinoid 4a insecticides also is reported. Several insecticide applications should be made at 5day intervals to significantly reduce thrips infestations. One common question asked by greenhouse producers is associated with the effectiveness of systemic insecticides against the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis. Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western. Development of a bioassay system for monitoring susceptibility in.

These cases of resistance involve insecticides in at least 7 chemical classes based on the insecticide resistance action committee irac. Insecticide resistance in onion thrips 101 of each insecticide were used in an assay. Insecticide resistance increases the vector competence. Usdacsrees regional integrated pest management centers pdf. After range finding tests, concentrations of insecticides were chosen to give at least two estimates of mortality above and below the expected lc50. Pesticide resistance can have a negative impact on integrated pest management programmes with chemical control as. Neonicotinoid insecticides there are 33 total slides. Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis. A significant concern with this new product is that it will be one of the most effective thrips control. Browse our database of pests for information on biology, distribution, insecticide resistance status and available resource on irac and thirdparty websites. Consequently, cultivars with moderate field resistance to viruses exist, but not.

Summary this publication by the insecticide resistance action group irag summarises the resistance status of pest. Ring spots from tomato spotted wilt virus infection of pepper. Rotate chemical classes, although this does not guarantee against the development of insecticide resistance. Get one year of greenhouse product news in both print and digital editions for free. Western flower thrips wft are the most important insect pest. When compared with the umca reference strain, resistance ratios from lc 90 s br 90 at 24 h ranged from 10.

Since resistance development in arthropods is an evolutionary process and cannot be ceased, it is vital to follow recommended practices in delaying selection for insecticide resistance. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, frankliniella. For example, resistance to dimethoate and formetanate hydrochloride carzol has developed in a number of citrus thrips populations in the san joaquin and coachella valleys. Insecticide resistance in onion thrips thrips tabaci. Western flower thrips develop insecticide resistance in. George kennedy, department of entomology, north carolina state university.

The first record of resistance occurred in palm beach county in 2008. However, due to the intensive selection pressure associated with insecticide applications, western flower thrips populations have developed resistance to a broad range of insecticides in different. Several decades of pesticide use in agriculture has resulted in populations of insect pests that have developed resistance to certain groups of pesticides. Understanding the interaction between insecticide resistance and concentration of insecticide in the plant can be challenging when diagnosing a problem in the field since it changes over time and environment soil, weather, moisture, etc. In order to avoid resistance and keep thrips population under check, pest management professionals should emphasize. Success 480 sc insecticide should be used in an ipm program and in rotation with other management strategies. Thrips insecticide resistance management and prevention. Insecticide resistance is a common issue in pest management. Western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis pergande, are one of the mostdestructive insect pests of greenhousegrown horticultural crops worldwide due to the direct and indirect damage they cause to plants. Pdf to develop an insecticide resistance management program for onion thrips, thrips tabaci lindeman thysanoptera. Another important tactic to improve pesticide efficacy in thrips control on onion, prevent or slow down insect resistance to insecticides is the use. Evaluation of thrip resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides. Thrips also pose a serious threat to crops by virus transmission.

Insecticide resistance management strategies against the. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exempli. Thrips tabaci is a key pest of onions, especially in the pacific northwestern usa. Pdf patterns of insecticide resistance in onion thrips. Managing thrips in pepper and eggplant 2 mellinger 2009, weiss et al. Developing host plant resistance for thrips in cotton to. An educational program to enhance adoption of integrated pest management ipm was begun, and the use of spinosyn insecticides was temporarily suspended in palm.

Resistance to insecticides from different chemical classes is common in wft populations, 415 even in those not specifically used for thrips control. Pest thrips of north america associated with domestic and imported crops. Because supplemental applications of insecticide in addition to seed treatments are sometimes required, alternative management tactics are needed to address this unsustainable path which will likely lead to an increased environmental impact and reduced economic. A system is described for collecting adult and larva of thrips tabaci from onion foliage into insecticidetreated vials to evaluate susceptibility to insecticides. Western flower thrips wft, frankliniella occidentalis. Concentrations of insecticides used for an insecticide varied between. New survey shows high level and widespread resistance of. Pesticide resistance in onion thrips nsw department of. Senior research scientist, biosecurity nsw, menangle. Some thrips species present in new zealand are major pests overseas, but of little consequence locally. Insecticide resistance and resistance management patterns of insecticide resistance in onion thrips thysanoptera. The western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis pergande thysanoptera. Perspective insecticide resistance management strategies against the western. The western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, is the most efficient vector for tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus tswv, a devastating plant pathogen.

Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides usda ars. Insecticide resistance in onion thrips thrips tabaci thysanoptera. Pesticide resistance can have a negative impact on integrated pest management programmes with chemical control as one of the components. Insecticide resistance is a worldwide problem in green peach aphid devonshire et al. Thripidae resistance to insecticides in coastal california greenhouses article pdf available in journal of economic entomology 851. Western flower thrips reproduce quickly and in high numbers, but the overuse of pesticides can lead to resistance. Western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis pergande, from 5 commercial greenhouses were resistant to diazinon, methomyl, bendiocarb, and cypermetluin, except in 2 tests with bendiocarb. To develop an insecticide resistance management program for onion thrips, thrips tabaci lindeman thysanoptera. Pdf western flower thrips resistance to insecticides.

Western flower thrips populations are regularly monitored for resistance in different crops and regions of florida. Adult thrips are small, paleyellow insects occasionally black with elongated bodies, and fringed wings. Insecticide resistance in australian populations of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis pergande thysanoptera. Consider the following strategies when developing an insecticide resistance management plan.

Interactions between insecticide uptake and neonicotinoid resistant thrips. New survey shows high level and widespread resistance. All of these factors, however, may depend on the systemic insecticide and the associated water solubility, because systemic insecticides with greater water solubility may accumulate in flower parts at concentrations. A tremendous effort has been devoted to developing peanut cultivars with resistance to orthotospoviruses. Perspective insecticide resistance management strategies. Resistance and western flower thrips there are 153 documented cases of insecticide resistance associated with western flower thrips populations worldwide. Metabolomics of thrips resistance in pepper capsicum spp. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips. Insecticide resistance has not been documented in populations of tobacco thrips.

Thrips, order thysanoptera, are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings. I r m patterns of insecticide resistance in onion thrips. Pdf insecticide resistance in onion thrips thrips tabaci. Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. New chemistries are needed to help maintain insecticide susceptibility in western flower thrips populations. Onion thrips from onion allium cepa crops were tested for resistance to four insecticides deltamethrin, diazinon, dichlorvos, and endosulfan following reports of failure of insecticides to control onion thrips in the field.

Shown below are the irac approved test methods which have been validated by irac member companies and collaborators to ensure that they provide reliable and reproducible data. Ohp thrips cocktail 2019 edition thrips, including flower and foliage thrips, are difficult to control pests. Alternative cultural control and plant resistance tactics are the best options to control thrips and to avoid the development of resistance. Insecticide resistance management against thrips thysanoptera. Systemic insecticides may not provide fast knockdown to prevent thrips damage to flowers when abundant populations are present. Thripidae is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. Insecticide resistance an overview sciencedirect topics. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips frankliniella occidentalis pergande thysanoptera.

Epidemics of tomato spotted wilt virus occur frequently in. Pergande, arrived in spain in 19861 and has become one of the major insect pests of. Employ alternative cultural control and plant resistance tactics in ipm programs as the best option to control thrips and avoid insecticide resistance development. Pdf insecticide resistance in australian populations of. To combat insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, several. Thrips are major pests of peanut arachis hypogaea l. For pea thrips, some formulations of deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, can be used. The availability of standard, validated and easytorun methods for resistance detection in the worlds major insect pests is crucial for successful monitoring of resistance problems. Insecticide resistance is prevalent in many western flower thrips populations worldwide and, as noted above, the extensive use of insecticides over the years has led to certain western flower thrips populations developing resistance to insecticides in seven chemical classes including organophosphate e. Thrips feeding is usually accompanied by black varnishlike flecks of frass excrement. The interactions between insecticide resistance in insect vector and the transmission of plant pathogen, however, are largely unknown. Success ful thrips management requires a combination of good cultural practices to min imize risk of colonization, a good scouting and pest monitoring program to keep track of population changes, and welltimed insecticide. You need to be aware of the development of insecticide resistance in. Thrips also feed on flower tissue, which causes marginal necrosis of petals and petal browning.

This virus is one of about twenty known species of tospoviruses pappu et al. How quickly insecticide resistance develops depends on many factors including the type of insecticide used, how often it is used and how capable the insect is in detoxifying the insecticide. Centre for biological information technology, the university of queensland. Resistance to certain organophosphate, carbamate, and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides has been documented in populations of western flower thrips. Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, prepupa, pupa and an adult. They feed by puncturing the epidermal outer layer of host tissue and sucking out the cell contents, which results in stippling, discolored flecking, or silvering of the leaf surface. Pdf onion thrips from onion allium cepa crops were tested for resistance to four insecticides deltamethrin, diazinon, dichlorvos, and. Insecticide resistance status in uk brassica crops. The western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, has developed resistance to many of the insecticide resistance action committee irac chemical classes. The development of resistance in florida of the western flower thrips to field rates of the spinosyn insecticides irac group 5 is a tremendous concern. Western flower thrips induce direct damage by feeding on leaves and flowers and also cause indirect damage by vectoring certain tospoviruses including impatiens necrotic. Management strategies for western flower thrips and the.

Control of thrips with systemic insecticides greenhouse. Onion thrips from onion allium cepa crops were tested for resistance to four insecticides deltamethrin, diazinon, dichlorvos, and endosulfan following reports of failure of insecticides to. Citrus thrips has a history of rapidly developing resistance to chemicals that are used repeatedly and frequently for its control. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips frankliniella. There is also a need to explore use patterns of insecticides that. Cote, indiana department of agriculture and eric r. Department of entomology, cornell universitynysaes, geneva, new york 14456, usa abstract. The western flower thrips is the most efficient vector of tomato spotted wilt virus. This insecticideresistant strains of western flower thrips that originated in california is thought to then have spread around the world in association with the globalization of the cut flower and horticulture industries bonarriva, 2003. Larentzaki department of entomology, cornell university, new york state agricultural experiment station, 630 w.

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